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        學習啦>學習英語>英語知識大全>《雅思閱讀如何快速定位》正文

        雅思閱讀如何快速定位

        時間:2020-07-02 11:52:44本文內容及圖片來源于讀者投稿,如有侵權請聯系xuexila888@qq.com 楚薇 我要投稿

        作為雅思閱讀的第一個考點,如何才能在如此大的閱讀量下快速定位找到答案,變得十分關鍵。在雅思閱讀的定位中,我們主要是通過定位詞來確定題目對應的文章具體部分,其原因在于簡短精確,節省時間,畢竟雅思閱讀文章篇幅很長,閱讀量大,一個小時的時間對于大多數烤鴨們來講實在不算充裕。那么雅思閱讀的定位詞如何選取?一起來看看學習啦為大家總結的雅思閱讀定位技巧總結吧。

        雅思閱讀如何快速定位

        如何選取雅思閱讀定位詞?

        首先,選取定位詞需要遵循一個總的原則,即——以名詞為主。

        在此提醒烤鴨們不要忘記了雅思閱讀考試的核心是同義替換,從考試核心出發,名詞在各類詞性中意思相對唯一且明確,也因此不容易出現替換,所以在選取定位詞的過程中,首先需要尋找的便是名詞。

        當然這并不表示所有的名詞都可以用作定位詞。我們首先選取名詞作為定位詞的原因是其意思相對唯一明確,不易替換,但是名詞中有一類是不符合這個特點的——抽象名詞。

        抽象名詞可以舉出很多例 子, 諸 如 reason,idea,definition… 我 們 以definition 為例,definition 的意思是“定義,解釋”,一篇文章中可能會出現對多個專家學者對某一特定現象的解釋或闡釋,那么在這篇文章中,每一個學者說過的話,都是一個“definition”,如此一來,如果我們選擇某一題目中的“definition”作為定位詞,那么該題目便無法對應到文章中的具體部分,顯然就無法進一步解答了。

        因此,在定位詞的選取上,我們要遵循名詞為主的總原則,但是要排除掉名詞中的抽象名詞一類。

        尋找特殊詞

        在以名詞為主的總原則下,我們要進一步睜大我們的眼睛,去發現題目中的“特殊詞”。那么何為“特殊詞”?常見的“特殊詞”又有哪些?

        (1)以大寫、斜體形式出現的詞

        雅思閱讀中會有字體上的差異,大多數情況下,如果我們在題目中讀到了以大寫或是斜體形式出現的單詞,這些詞因其“外形”上的與眾不同,值得我們格外留意,一般來講,這類詞是適合選擇的定位詞。

        (2)數字

        眾所周知,英文里的數字相對來講拼寫繁瑣,所以大多數情況下,閱讀中出現的數字都是以阿拉伯數字形式出現的,包括百分數、分數等等,也因此數字在大多數情況下在一堆英文字母里就顯得格外突出啦!所以,一般來講,數字同樣也是適合選作定位的“特殊詞”之一。

        (3)時間

        雅思閱讀中涉及到的時間非常多,大到世紀,小到分秒。時間同樣是一類適合選擇作為定位詞的“特殊詞”。時間的特性之一便是其唯一性,而這恰恰符合我們選擇定位詞的要求,諸如 1985、二十世紀等都是唯一且確定的時間,同樣容易發現,且不易替換。更不用說年份這類詞嘗嘗是以阿拉伯數字形式出現的,就更加顯眼了!

        (4)人名

        學術類閱讀中常常涉及各類專家、學者,因此人名同樣是出鏡頻率較高的一類“特殊詞”。人名出現需要大寫,且拼寫方式明顯與其他詞不同,烤鴨們最頭疼的替換問題更是完全不需要擔心!因此,一般情況下,人名同樣是題目中適合作為定位詞的“特殊詞”。

        雅思閱讀定位特殊詞的特殊情況

        首先看題目中有無“特殊詞”的原因是其顯眼好找,且不易替換的特性!安灰滋鎿Q”

        當然不等于“不會替換”,考官們在“特殊詞”上,也會想盡辦法,企圖難倒眾烤鴨們。

        例如數字上容易出現特殊情況的百分數!秳蜓潘 7》Test 2 Passage 3 的第 34題 :

        “The survey concluded that one-fifth or 20% of the household transport requirement as outside the local area.”中選擇“20%”作為定位詞,而回到文章中卻根本沒有發現 20% 這個數字,實際上就是考官耍了一個小trick,20% outside 在文章中變成了 80% within。

        所以,當用百分數 X 作為定位詞沒有找到對應時,我們要去尋找 1-X。

        遇到雅思閱讀定位詞沒有特殊詞怎么辦?

        要始終堅信,考官是冷酷無情的!他們是不會輕易放過烤鴨們的,所以大多數情況下,只有少部分題目中會出現上述容易定位的“特殊詞”。在沒有“特殊詞”的情況下,我們需要選擇普通詞作為主要定位詞。

        首先,普通詞定位同樣是建立在詞性原則基礎上的,即以名詞為主。

        其次,我們在選取普通定位詞的時候,重點是關注一道題目中的主語名詞和賓語名詞。

        一般情況下,我們以主語名詞為主,賓語名詞為輔。原因在于主語名詞中的“主”字,其重要性已經不言而喻,所以一道沒有“特殊詞”的題目,我們首先應當關注主語名詞。

        但是,當賓語名詞與主語名詞相比,賓語名詞是一個更加不熟悉、不常見,甚至完全不認識的詞時,賓語名詞就一躍成為了主要定位詞。原因有兩點:

        (1)該詞在文章中的對應性很強,有可能僅在此文中出現并進行專門討論。

        (2)該詞本身就是一個專有名詞,那么該詞就從一個所謂的“普通詞”變成了不易,甚至是無法替換的“特殊詞”。

        例 如, 劍 7 Test 1 Passage 2 中 第 22 題:

        “Feeding increasing populations is possible due primarily to improved irrigation systems.”中的“irrigation systems”,即灌溉系統一詞,大多數烤鴨初看該詞并不知道其準確意思,但是它屬于要以賓語名詞為主的情況,且本身就是一個專有名詞,文中該詞也是以原詞形式出現的。

        同樣的情況也適用于第 26 題:

        “In the future, governments should maintain ownership of water infrastructures.”的“infrastructures”一詞。

        所以,當沒有“特殊詞”,而只能選用普通詞定位時,我們需要將題目中的主語名詞和賓語名詞選出并比較,一般情況下以主語名詞為主,賓語名詞為輔;當賓語名詞更加不熟悉、不常見,甚至完全不認識時,以賓語名詞為主要定位詞。同時需要提出的是,普通詞定位大概率會出現同義替換,要想做到精確定位,除了掌握好定位原則之外,還需要在同義詞上多下功夫!

        雅思閱讀模擬原文:Seeking an energy holy trinity

        Seeking an energy holy trinity

        1 NEELIE KROES, the European Union’s competition commissioner, did not mince her words when reporting on Europe’s energy markets on Wednesday January 10th. Europe’s energy firms have failed to invest in networks and so customers are suffering. Those “vertically integrated” energy companies such as Electricité de France (EDF) or Germany’s E.ON, widely dubbed as “national champions”, are effectively behaving like local monopolies. Shy of competition, eager for artificially high prices, they are helping to block the efficient generation, transmission and distribution of energy on the continent.

        2 Energy prices vary wildly across Europe. Ms Kroes wants to see cheaper energy, and intends to push suppliers to divest their distribution network and to get them to invest more in transportation systems so that more energy—in the form of gas, or electricity, for example—can flow easily over borders. It is remarkably hard, for example, for gas-poor Germany to import from the neighbouring, gas-rich Netherlands. Companies that dominate national markets have, so far, had little interest in improving the interconnections which would mean lower prices for consumers across the continent.

        3 Ms Kroes, of course, will struggle to get her way. The European Commission, which on the same day presented its recommendation for improving EU energy policy, also wants to see the unbundling of ownership, the legal separation of energy suppliers and transporters, something that the integrated energy companies and interested governments, notably in France and Germany, are bound to oppose ferociously.

        4 Complicating the matter is an argument over the security of energy supply in Europe. Much has been made of the risk for western Europe of depending too heavily on Russian exports of gas. Russia under Vladimir Putin is prone to using energy exports as a blunt tool of foreign policy, especially when trying to bully countries in its hinterland. Last year Russia interrupted gas deliveries to Ukraine, affecting supplies in central and western Europe too. This week it blocked oil exports passing via Belarus to Europe, though that spat was soon resolved.

        5 The risk is that concerns about security of supply may be used spuriously by those in Europe who oppose the sort of liberalisation encouraged by Ms Kroes. The likes of E.ON and EDF may claim that only protected national champions are able to secure supply, by striking long-term deals with powerful foreign suppliers. The Commission disagrees. Such deals are too often politically motivated and far from transparent. Protection has been tried for long enough and evidently has not worked for the internal market, nor have these companies secured the best deals for consumers from the Russians.

        6 In contrast, the Commission's new policy proposes, ideally, a break-up of these companies into suppliers and distributors. (As a second best solution, especially for France and Germany, it recommends the management of the networks by a third party.) Properly independent managers of Europe's energy networks would have a strong incentive to build interconnecting pipelines and power lines across borders. For the gas market another means of ensuring competition and security would be finding a more diverse range of suppliers, for example by building more terminals for the import of liquified natural gas. It would also be likely to mean lower prices, if the example of liberalised Britain over the past ten years is anything to go by.

        7 Whether any of this is likely to happen soon, however, is another matter. The Commission is also calling for European governments to agree on a common effort to reduce carbon emissions by at least 20% by 2020 (compared with 1990 levels). If America is willing to play ball, the Commission proposes to reduce emissions by as much as 30%. Achieving either target would mean promoting cleaner cars, a more effective emissions-trading system for Europe, wider use of public transport and a sharp increase in the use of renewable sources of energy, like wind and solar power. All that is laudable enough, but will also require political horse-trading as governments—Europe’s leaders are due to meet in March to discuss the various energy proposals—try to avoid commitments that may hurt domestic energy companies or make European firms less competitive than rivals in America, Asia and elsewhere.

        (689 words)

        雅思閱讀模擬題目:Seeking an energy holy trinity

        Questions 1-5  Do the following statements reflect the views of the writer in the reading passage?

        In boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet write

        YES if the statement reflects the views of the writer

        NO if the statement contradicts the views of the writer

        NOT GIVEN if there is no information about this in the passage

        1. Europe’s energy companies have funded the construction of the distribution network.

        2. There has been a wide range of energy prices within Europe.

        3. Gas-poor Germany has to pay a price higher than average to import gas from its neighbour.

        4. E.ON and EDF may oppose the liberalisation due to their concerns about the security of energy supply.

        5. The European Commission proposes to reduce carbon emissions by 30% if the U.S. is willing to cut its.

        Questions 6-10  Look at the box of countries below.

        Choose One or Two countries to complete the following sentences.

        Write your answers in boxes 6-10 on your answer sheet.

        Countries

        A. Belarus

        B. Britain

        C. France

        D. Germany

        E. Russia

        F. Ukraine

        G. The U.S.

        6. It’s dangerous for western Europe to depend too much on gas imports from ……

        7. A liberalised policy of energy supply was enforced over ten years in …

        8. Last year energy supplies in central and western Europe was affected owing to the interruption of gas deliveries to …

        9. The governments in …… are bound to oppose the separation of energy suppliers and transporters?

        10. Oil exports passing via … to Europe was blocked this week.

        Questions 11-14

        Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the reading passage above for each answer.

        Write your answers in boxes 11-14.

        11. The EC disagrees with energy firms to strike long-term deals with foreign suppliers because such deals are usually far from …

        12. The EC proposes to split those “national champions” into …

        13. A more diverse range of suppliers would guarantee …in the European gas market.

        14. The realization of carbon emissions reduction would require the promotion of cleaner cars, a better emissions-trading system, wider use of public transport and more use of … of energy.

        雅思閱讀模擬答案:Seeking an energy holy trinity

        Key and Explanations:

        1. No

        See para.1: Europe’s energy firms have failed to invest in networks…

        2. Yes

        See para.2: Energy prices vary wildly across Europe.

        3. Not Given

        See para.2: It is remarkably hard, for example, for gas-poor Germany to import from the neighbouring, gas-rich Netherlands.

        4. No

        See para.5: The risk is that concerns about security of supply may be used spuriously by those in Europe who oppose the sort of liberalisation encouraged by Ms Kroes. The likes of E.ON and EDF may claim that…

        5. Yes

        See para.7: If America is willing to play ball, the Commission proposes to reduce emissions by as much as 30%.

        6. E

        See para.4: Much has been made of the risk for western Europe of depending too heavily on Russian exports of gas.

        7. B

        See para.6: It would also be likely to mean lower prices, if the example of liberalised Britain over the past ten years is anything to go by.

        8. F

        See para.4: Last year Russia interrupted gas deliveries to Ukraine, affecting supplies in central and western Europe too.

        9. C, D

        See para.3: …the legal separation of energy suppliers and transporters, something that the integrated energy companies and interested governments, notably in France and Germany, are bound to oppose ferociously.

        10. A

        See para.4: This week it blocked oil exports passing via Belarus to Europe, though that spat was soon resolved.

        11. transparent

        See para.5: by striking long-term deals with powerful foreign suppliers. The Commission disagrees. Such deals are too often politically motivated and far from transparent.

        12. suppliers and distributors

        See the sentences in para.1 (Those “vertically integrated” energy companies such as Electricité de France (EDF) or Germany’s E.ON, widely dubbed as “national champions”…) and para.6 (…the Commission's new policy proposes, ideally, a break-up of these companies into suppliers and distributors.)

        13. competition and security

        See para.6: For the gas market another means of ensuring competition and security would be finding a more diverse range of suppliers…

        14. renewable sources

        See para.7: Achieving either target would mean promoting cleaner cars, a more effective emissions-trading system for Europe, wider use of public transport and a sharp increase in the use of renewable sources of energy…


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